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Tag: memorial

Architecture May 2019

A Bridge to Remembering

“The bridge gathers to itself in its own way earth and sky, divinities and mortals.”

Martin Heidegger Building, Dwelling Thinking

Introduction

Competition Entry Report for Commemorative Bridge at the Irish War Memorial Islandbridge, Dublin

Gathering

Making a bridge provides the opportunity to gather the world, unifying the heaven and earth, the past and future.  It gathers up the earth, the banks and the river into a single thing.  In this location the bridge must prepare the visitor for the journey across the river to the memorial gardens.  This design brings together ideas about pilgrimage, memory and order.

Arrival

According to (Camillo) Sitte, the urban space before the church should be narrow and long, an extension of the processional route.  Here to shelter and enfold the visitor the prepared space is surrounded by stone walls that carry the engraved words of the war poets; a testament to the loss of innocence.  Water flows along each side and echo off the curved entablature to further calm the pilgrim.


Sound & Poetry

The courtyard provides a tranquil and isolated space in the busy city for the visitor to slow down.  This transition is a necessary purification process that prepares the visitor for the journey to the memorial garden.  The screening walls are formed to deflect and contain the sound of flowing water.  The concrete elements can be precast allowing their placement with minimal disturbance on the existing ground.  Openings to the rear allow the sound of birds and the wind in the trees of the nature sanctuary to percolate into the space.

Anchoring & Threshold

The bridge element is anchored to each bank with an entrance portico, a threshold that signals the crossing.  These embankment elements resolve the unique topography on both sides of the river, allowing for full universal access.  A hydraulic lift and staircase are provided inside the buttress element.  This strategy provides for a flat arrival court at +5.0 M and a flat bridge deck at +7.1 M.  This approach allows for 2.1 M clearance beneath the arch over the river as well allowing the river path on the southern shore to be uninterrupted.  These weighty anchors provide the necessary restraint for the bridge (see structural description below).  The northern portico element is also marked by a bell tower.  It is proposed that a bronze bell be commissioned as the percentage art project.

The Divided Path

In the medieval world the visitors to the great cathedrals were directed (under the eyes of Christ) to enter by one door and once their pilgrimage was satisfied, exited by the other.  These double doors are divided by the pillar that supports a Vesica Piscis above.  The porticos provide a similar choice.  The vaulted gateways are illuminated from above.  The allusions to both the Medieval Cathedral and Lutyens’ war graves motifs are not accidental.  The vaulted gateways frame the space and provide a sense of scale while providing clues to distance.



Material Character

The materials are driven by topography.  Concrete provide the material of abutment and bridge, brick the middle ground, while stone completes the entablature, extending to the structure of the bell tower.  Concrete provides defence against the vagaries of rising and falling water, marking the plimsoll line of the structure.  Brick provides tactile warmth.  The hard wearing surfaces are paved in stone, slabs over the courtyard and the bridge deck. Stone cobbles mark the crossing from one realm to another and completes the structures by capping the porticos and faces the courtyard walls.

Structure

The proposed bridge spans 45 metres from two concrete platforms.  To minimise the impact of the bridge on the environs the design carves out a narrow zone of impact.  The first stage is the sinking of piles and caps upon which the abutments will be constructed. The walls of the stair cores create a rigid box to connect the bridge.  The abutment foundation is anchored to the pile caps and in turn provides the landing point for the bridge’s arched soffit and flat parapet.

Sequence

The bridge can be erected simultaneously from both embankments using cranes located on the abutment foundations.  These lift the bridge segments into place. The first three segments are connected by joining steel cable strands together and tensioning them. The last segments can be connected using post-tension strands on-site and then lifting in place, with the final “keystone” dropped into place locking the structure together.

The bridge design balances nearly all of the self-weight of the bridge.  The tendons are located near the bottom of the cross section at mid-span, near the top of the section where bridge meets abutment, and then somewhere near the centre of the cross section at the far end of abutment or end of bridge.  Post-tensioning the tendons will pre-compress the concrete in the region of the cross section where there is tension due to bending under applied load.  Additional pre-stressing to ensure compression throughout the depth of section in the unoccupied bridge is used so that tension stress is never greater than the pre-compression.  This provides good deflection performance and long term durability.  The bridge will be built using C50/60 concrete and 15mm 7-wire post-tension strands.  At the base of the bridge we need 10×22 strands on each side and at middle 8×22 strands in total.  Additional 2-wire crossing strands, perpendicular to the main strands, will be placed 1m c/c.

Environment – Construction

The construction of the bridge relies less on disturbing and more on placement.  Aside from the piles and caps there is little disturbance envisaged for any part of the construction.  No significant excavation is envisaged for any construction with new surfaces established above or at the existing grade levels.  The arrival court is formed using cut and fill to accommodate the new levels at or near the existing grade level of the roadway.  The southern portico is accessed by a simple path, land graded either side to minimise its physical impact.

Environment – Post Construction

The post construction environment is similar to that prior to the introduction of the bridge, the mature trees (with one or two exceptions) are maintained and a nature enclave is protected (encouraged even) to the eastern side of the arrival court.  The existing river line and footpath are maintained.   The extent of the impact remains a narrow strip with limited impact outside of this zone.   Access to the bridge is facilitated using stairs, ramps and elevators.  It can be isolated or secured by decorative gates if required.


Marking Time

Marked by the sound of a bell, the sound of water, the mark of words, the echoes of people and place, this project had the ambition to enfold space and time with sound, light and words to guide and effect a change in the visitor.

 

Credits copyright reserved by authors

Design & Concept NJBA A+U; Noel Brady

Design & Engineering Bakkala Consulting Engineers; Chris Bakala, Erik Altmäe

Cost Analysis KMCS; Nigel Spence, Anthony Devane

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Architecture September 2015

World War 1 Memorial Washington DC

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“Try Again, Fail Again, Fail better.” Samuel Beckett

 

This was the submission narrative submitted along with the competition entry.

The scheme strips back Pershing Park to the bone, a clearing among the trees.  The berms and undergrowth are cut back to provide maximum visibility and access from all sides.  At the centre is a new fractured “ground” consisting of granite blocks with tomb like proportions at different elevations.  On this “ground” are 12 marble statues of infantry marching towards the “front” where tall oxidised steel sculpted “trees” represent the loss of nature and destruction.  At the end of this vista is the old “court” which is to be re-purposed as a reconciliations space.

 

And when peace comes to Flanders,

Because it comes too late,

He’ll still lie the, and listen

To the Otterburn in spate –

Wilfred Gibson – Otterburn

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General Pershing’s statue has been relocated opposite its current position to face the “front” alongside his flanking men.  While Pershing’s statue is 2 x life size the soldiers are 1.5 x life size.  Completing the composition is the chronology of the war in bronze.  Opposite the timeline is a series of illuminated beacons that display the poetry of the WWI – a reminder of the realities of war.  The space around the new fractured “ground” is to be made level and accessible to all.  It is expected that seating would be provided at the periphery looking inward to the statues.  Lighting is to be provided in the beacons, along the edges and in the joints between the granite of the new “ground” platform, in the vertical markers of the timeline and around the court and the Pershing statue

Dark clouds are smouldering into red

      While down the craters morning burns.

The dying soldier shifts his head

      To watch the glory that returns;

He lifts his fingers toward the skies

      Where holy brightness breaks in flame;

Radiance reflected in his eyes,

      And on his lips a whispered name.

Siegfried Sassoon – How to Die

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The main design consisted of

  1. Poetic Beacons – Poetry of the First World War
  2. The fractured ground – a staggered plate of granite to represent both the destruction of the ground, the mechanisation of war (tomb like proportions)
  3. The Marble Statues of the Soldiers at the front (the sleepwalkers)
  4. The “trees” – oxidised steel poles that represent the destruction of nature, echoing iconic images from the Somme and Ypres.
  5. General Pershing’s statue relocated to face the “front” towards the East separated from his men (flanking) in attack towards the end (the old court)
  6. The chronology of major events of the war cast in bronze with vertical markers
  7. The Court of resolution- armistice, the old memorial refurbished and re-purposed

 

Who died on the wires, and hung there, one of two –

Who for his hours of life had chattered through

Infinite lovely chatter of Bucks accent,

Yet face unbroken wires; stepped over, and went,

A noble fool, faithful to his stripes – and ended.

Ivor Gurney – The Silent One

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Having read the brief in some detail and thinking on the epoch changing nature of the war the design was a sparse and poetic reflection on mechanisation, death, pain and memory.  A sparse entry by the standards of the others it was invisible among the bombastic statements of many and it had no gimmicks.  It provided space for reflection and brought to the fore the war poetry that has not been a major feature of other memorials.

What in our lives is burnt

In the fire of this?

The heart’s dear granary?

How much we shall miss?

 

Three lives hath one life –

Iron, honey, gold.

The gold, the honey gone –

Left is the hard and cold.

 

Iron are the loves

Molten right through our youth.

A burnt space through ripe fields,

A fair mouth’s broken tooth.

Isaac Rosenberg – August 1914

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The opportunity to engage in open competition is of benefit to the work in the practice.  The realisation that it will not progress further is of course a disappointment.  Reflecting on this failure I am strengthened by Beckett’s mantra; “try again, fail again, fail better”.

njb  – NJBA A+U

Architecture April 2014

HØYBLOKKA REVISITED

This is NJBA A+U’s contribution to the ‘dugnad’, (a voluntary input for the purposes of debate) organised by Markus Richter of the 0047 Gallery in Oslo.  Tasked with examining the complex, its buildings and spaces the proposal sought to invoke a memory of why the place has been abandoned.

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It is hard to look at Høyblokka without thinking of Caspar David Friedrich’s “The Abbey in the Oakwood”.  What had been a vibrant monastery had firstly been dissolved then fell into ruin before been recycled for defensive positions.  In the painting the ruin is shrouded in darkness as mourners arrive to a funeral.  The trees like the ruin are also pruned, their branches amputated.  The melancholy of the painting is a suitable echo of the sad events in Oslo and Utoya.

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The blackened oaks are mirrored in the tall trees standing in front of Høyblokka.  It seems appropriate that two hundred years separate the creation of the painting from the events in Norway.

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The enduring image of the events in Utoya was the white sheets that covered the victims of the atrocity.  The organic distribution of the sheets along the waterfront produced and enduring almost artistic image of innocence and loss.

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While deliberations will take time to define the future of Høyblokka this is a proposal to honour the fallen to compliment the proposed memorial on Utoya to loss.  71 internally illuminated crumpled sheets are placed on 71 biers raising them above the pedestrian level.  As frames they take up variations in the landscape creating a cloud like cover to the remaining urban space of the Høyblokka complex.

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0047 will present a wide range of entries in the exhibition Høy­blokka revisited, which opens on March, 27th; a selection of the entries will subsequently be published in Arkitektur N.  The debate should raise important questions about the nature of urban ruins.

 

Art

The first edition of Version was published in December 2012. Version 12.2.1 “the impossible memorial”, documents the memorial to victims of abuse (ireland) by NJBA A+U. THis is available via Blurb as a paperback, hardback or e-book. A preview of the publication is available on our site at; http://www.12publishers.com/12Publishers.htm

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